STI STD human biology notes

Posted by Studentbox user
on 08/11/2018 at in  Science




Signs + symptoms female

Signs + symptoms male



Treatment male

If left untreated female

If left untreated male





Transmitted by unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex with an infected partner (without a condom)

Vaginal discharge (yellow/green)

Painful urination

Bleeding during sex


Can take months or years to appear

Clear/white/yellow discharge from penis

Itchy urethra or pain when urinating

Testicular pain


Prescribed antibiotics from doctor

Refrain from sexual contact

Tell your partner

Urine sample

Urethra swab

Infertility due to pelvic inflammatory disease

Chronic pelvic pain

Increase risk of ectopic pregnancy

Inflammation of the testes, scrotum and prostate






Transmitted by unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex with an infected partner (without a condom)

Vaginal discharge (yellow/green)

Burning when urinating

Abdominal pain


Symptoms appear within 3-5 days after contact with the infection

Yellow discharge from the penis

Smelly discharge

Pain when urinating

Testes are painful


Avoid sexual contact

until finished the full course of treatment


Avoid sexual contact until finished the full course of treatment






Very serious disease


Transmitted by unprotected oral, vaginal or anal sex with an infected partner (without a condom)


Progresses in 3 stages

Primary stage: bacteria will enter through any small break in the skin, during the incubation stage the bacteria will multiply and become small sores known as Chancres, these sores can appear on the genital area, the lips, finger or eyelid

Secondary stage: after 24 weeks a person may experience skin rashes, sores or ulcers in the mouth and mild fevers and disorders of the brain or eyes. This stage can last for 2 years.

Latent stage:

This stage can last for many years and possibly the rest of the person’s life, this infection cannot be passed onto others, a person may experience insanity, blindness, weakness of the blood vessels and physical incapacity.

Chancres, these sores can appear on the genital area (labia minora, majora, penis), the lips, finger or eyelid


Can affect your brain and other major organs, if not treated can stay in the body for many years after and cause serious problems

Genital Herpes

(herpes simplex virus 2)


(1 is cold sores)

(2 produces blisters on the genital organs or pubic area)

Transmitted by skin to skin contact and therefore can be passed on during genital, anal or oral sex.

Blisters on the genital area which can burst leaving ulcers/sores

Pain when urinating


Muscular pain

Glands are swollen

Can treat symptoms, can’t cure the virus, creams and antiviral tablets


Avoid any sexual activity until all lesions have completely healed, pay extra attention to person hygiene, must wear a condom, symptoms can worsen if you are stressed, change in menstrual cycle, surgery and exposure to the sun.



Genital Warts


Caused by a virus called the human papillomavirus (HPV), usually found on the genital areas

Itchiness, discomfort during sex, clusters and sores

Freeze or laser them off, the virus is still in your body, surgically removed, creams




Human immunodeficiency virus acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome

HIV is a retrovirus which contains a RNA core, rather than a core of DNA, It is similar to other viruses where it cannot reproduce by itself, it must take over a host cell and reproduce inside that cell, the HIV virus will infect WBC known as T lymphocytes, It will overtake the T cells and reproduce quickly which will spread to other WBC’s, HIV destroys these WBC’s, making it harder for your body to fight off other infections.

Killer T cells, Helper T cells (send signal to macrophages or phagocytes to ingulf virus) (are taken over by HIV), Suppressor T cells (need less now)

HIV causes AIDS

HIV is spread by anal or vaginal sex without a condom, by sharing needles and syringes with an infected person, from mother to baby (in some cases during child birth or breastfeeding), blood transfusions, equipment that hasn’t been sterilised (piercings/tattoo equipment), in rare cases HIV is spread through oral sex and needle injuries.

HIV doesn’t always multiply rapidly, it can take years for a person’s immune system to be affected enough to have symptoms. A person with HIV will often progress through several phases before their condition is considered AIDS.


Stages of HIV: Doctors have classified three HIV stages:

Acute HIV infection

Flu-like symptoms and extreme tiredness, weight loss and mouth ulcers, rash


Chronic HIV infection

During this stage, you usually won’t have as many symptoms as you did during the first stage, the virus multiplies less quickly during the chronic stage, without any treatment, the chronic HIV infection stage lasts anywhere from 10 to 12 years before advancing to AIDS, if you take treatments for HIV and your HIV levels are low, you can live a normal to nearly normal life span, it’s also possible that the infection will never progress to the AIDS phase.



A doctor diagnoses a person with AIDS when they have a CD4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 in the blood. A normal CD4 count ranges from 500-1,600 cells/mm3 in healthy adults. If the person has had some form of infection such as pneumonia, has had cancer etc, then this can also cause them to have early onset AIDS. Unfortunately, when a person’s HIV progresses to AIDS, the survival rate is usually about 3 years.

No cure and no vaccine to prevent infection, there are a number of antiviral drugs to inhibit the reproductive cycle of the virus, however you will be prescribed an antiviral drug which is for the stage you currently have (either 1 or 2)



Refraining from oral, anal or vaginal sex, always using a latex barrier, such as a condom, when you have sex, never share needles with others



Most people who’ve been exposed to HIV will test HIV positive within six weeks of exposure, but a small percentage of people take up to three months. A simple blood test is taken to detect HIV antibodies. A repeat test in three months may be required.


Pubic lice


Tiny parasitic insects found I the genital areas as well as in other parts of the body. They live in pubic and body hair.

Close body contact usually during sex. Can also be transmitted via sharing bedding or clothing with an infected person. Inflammation around the genital area. Itching or irritation.

Special lotions/shampoos applied to the affected area. The creams or lotions will kill the insect and its eggs. Clothing and bedding should be washed.



How can people control/reduce the spread of STI’s:

-       Other than not having sexual intercourse at all, the best form of protection against STI’s is the male condom.

-       A condom is only effective when it covers the infected area.

-       A condom does not protect against genital herpes (especially if the sore is weeping).

-       Remember, sometimes it’s not obvious to see some STI’s. Some STI’s can stay dormant for a few years before they start to show.

-       If you are in a long tern relationship and want to have sex without condoms it is suggested that you and your partner get tested first.

-       Some partners may be reluctant to use condoms at first

-       If your partner still says no to condoms you should ask yourself if you’re prepared to risk your health by having unsafe sex. Your answer can be no too.

-       Talk to someone about STI’s (education).

-       Talk to your partner about their sexual history.



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