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Psychology essay on Prejudice unit 2

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on 08/11/2018 at in  Science

‘In a group situation we stereotype ourselves and others on the basis of group membership.’(1)

 

Prejudice:

The unjustifiable and usually negative attitudes towards groups and its members.

Common forms are based on visible differences between people, race, age, and sex.

 

Forms:

1.     Racism= the belief that the in group have superior values, norms and behaviours to the out-group, based on race

 

THE MOVIE ‘THE SAPPHIRES’ 2012

 

2.     Sexism

3.     Ageism

 

Since European settlers, hatred and fear. 1984 vote. Housing and employment. Still exists. Excluded by other means (unsociable behaviour). Effects migrants, especially Asians. 73% of foreign studiers in uni said they’d been discriminated. Abuse 15% physical attacks

 

While recent prejudice is less obvious and harder to measure and detect than traditional prejudice which was practiced openly and blatantly, it is still present, just in a more subtle way. Such as when a pregnant woman is refused work when a man is.

 

Causes:

Just world phenomenon: get what they deserve, power or status (due to hard work and intelligence, therefore justify inequalities)

 

‘IF YOU BLOKES WORKED AS HARD AS YOU FISHED YOU’D BE RICH YOU KNOW’ -Kay

 

1.     Scarce resources: Robbers Cave study

TENSIONS CAN BREAK OUT BETWEEN GROUPS WHEN UNEMPLOYMENT IS HIGH AND AVAILABLE JOBS AND HOUSING ARE SCARCE. BUT WHAT ABOUT THE CONFLICT THAT EXISTS BETWEEN FOOTBALL FANS, RIVAL GANGS, CHILDREN IN THE PLAYGROUND? SCARCE RESOURCES ARE NOT THE BASIS FOR ALL INTERGROUP CONFLICTS.’ (1)

 

For each competition the winners got the prize and the losers got nothing

 

2.     Social categorisation: us and them, favouritism and rejection

 

-       ‘IF YOU BLOKES WORKED AS HARD AS YOU FISHED YOU’D BE RICH YOU KNOW’ -Kay caused by her living with a white family

-       Tajfel and Billig 1973 (1): ‘demonstrated how little it takes to provoke favouritism towards the in-group and unfairness towards the out-group. The mere experience of being formed into groups promote in-group bias

 

3.     Social influence. Not parents, it depends on what the children believed their parent’s prejudices to be, either good or bad.

THE KID IN THE PUB WHO CLAPS WHEN NO-ONE ELSE DOES

 

Results in:

‘We behave in accordance with the prejudices we hold against others’(3) ‘it pivots on the sort of people we think we are and the sorts of people we think others are’

‘prejudice has 3 components:

A.    Cognitive: beliefs about the attitude object

B.    Affective: strong feelings (usually negative) about the attitude object and the qualities it is believed to posses

C.     Conative: intentions to behave in certain ways towards the attitude object (note: intention, not action)’(3)

1.     Negative stereotypes A

Stereotypes= over simplified beliefs that belong to a particular group

WHEN THE MAN IN THE HELICOPTER CALLS KAY’S BOYFRIEND A DIRTY DOG (THEY AREN’T ALL UNHYGENIC, THIS IS A STEREOTYPE)

 

Stereotypes cause distortions of reality:

o   accentuation of group differences: ‘focus on differences and ignoring the similarities’(2)

o   selective thinking: ‘only see what reinforces the cultural stereotype and reject any perceptions that do not fit’(2)

stereotypes: normal and rational psychological process. Stereotypes help us to process and categorise the new information that we are inundated with daily. ‘We use stereotypes as a guide to provide a general context about [people]’(2)

2.     Inter-group competition: threats in economic hardship come from the out-group

-       (robbers cave study) eagles and the rattlers (Sherif 1958)

-       once competition began, hostility arose A

-       negative stereotypes and attitudes were formed about members of the opposing group A

-       name-calling, cruel chanting, fights, raids of the other group’s cabins, desire to be as physically distant from the other group as possible (B), blatant bragging of their own group’s superiority, rearrangements of power and status

-       in-group solidarity and cooperation intensified (1)

3.     Ethnocentrism: the tendency for a person’s own culture to influence the way they view the rest of the world (A)

-       They use their own values, standards, attitudes and behaviours as a guide to judge the behaviours and thoughts of others

-       Their lifestyle is ‘normal’ ‘while the lifestyles of other cultures are viewed as strange and often inferior’ (2)

-       ‘normal response to growing up in a particular culture’ (Cashdan 2001)

4.     Negative feelings= hostility (B)

WHEN THE GIRLS WALK INTO THE PUB

 

5.     Physical violence to the point of genocide, such as the Holocaust. The Jewish people were the minority. Physical violence arising from often unprovocative behaviour on the victim’s part. Either at school or in public places such as bars etc.

6.     Discrimination= unequal treatment of people those have the same rights as others (anti-discrimination act NSW 1977) or ‘the behavioural manifestation of prejudiced attitudes’ (2)

WHEN NOLEEN GETS THE PRIZE BUT SHE WAS ‘SHITE’ - Dave

7.     Less opportunities for the minority group in a community: no jobs, no-one will employ them, and less access to services such as healthcare, education and training.

8.     Dehumanisation: stripping people of their dignity and humanity.

‘if people can be viewed as less than human, then atrocities against them become essentially no different to squashing an insect’(3)

 

REDUCE PREJUDICE:

Federal and state governments: create anti-discrimination legislation

Institutions, professions and community groups: review policies and practices (2)

and people:

1.     Inter-group contact, when work towards common goal, see themselves as part of a larger group. Also, equal status helps (robbers cave)

WHEN GAIL GETS TOLD SHE’D GOT THE WEAKEST VOICE AND SO IS FORCED TO COOPERATE IN ORDER TO STAY IN THE GROUP

Empirical: Robbers Cave study:

o   Brought together through the introduction of subordinate goals, name-calling ceased (1)

o   Groups must communicate and work together to achieve goals

o   They then had equal status

2.     Policies upheld by the Federal and State governments as well as ‘appointing properly qualified minorities into positions in which they are historically under-represented, with the aim of making such positions appear more attainable for minorities’ (3)

3.     Jigsaw classroom (like classmates more, less prejudice and more productive and produce better quality work)

They need to work together, otherwise they aren’t a group and won’t be able to go to Vietnam or at least be successful there

4.     Cognitive interventions: change how we think, change our attitudes. Reorganises the groups (recategorization).

WHEN KAY LEAVES HER WHITE TUPPERWARE FRIENDS TO GO TO VIETNAM WITH HER COUSINS

 

5.     Individuation, seeking information about people as individuals, rather than accepting stereotypes about the group to which they may belong.

WHEN THE MUM HAS TO BE CONVINCED TO LET THEM GO TO VIETNAM

 

CONCLUSION:

(3) ‘It [prejudice] has always been with us, and it is a depressing thought that it may remain with us as a fundamental part of the human condition.’

 

References:

1.     Burton. L, Western. D and Kowalski. R. 2009. Psychology 2nd Australian and New Zealand edition. John Wiley and sons Milton, Australia.

2.     Vaughan. G and Hogg. M. 2008. Introduction to Social Psychology 5th edition. Pearson Education Sydney, Australia.

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