Revision for semester 1 exams for Psychology

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on 08/11/2018 at in  Exam resources

Chapter summaries for Psychology

2. Biological basis for behaviour




Corpus Callosum:



Reticular formation:



Spinal cord:






Nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

-       Autonomic

-       Somatic

Central nervous system

-       Brain

-       Spinal chord


Right hemisphere

Left hemisphere


Frontal lobe:

Parietal lobe:

Temporal lobe:

Occipital lobe:



-       Dendrites

-       Axon

-       Myelin sheath

-       Cell body

-       Nucleus

-       Synaptic knobs

-       Synaptic gap


Phineas gage + personality a case study 1848









Physical activity: releases mood boosting hormones called endorphins and can improve mental and physical health. Statistics Canada (1999) reports that one in four Canadians who exercised regularly reported feeling more energetic, less depressed and tired less often than those who exercised infrequently.


Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that effect the way that messages are passed from one neuron to another. They carry a message from sending neuron across a synapse to receptor sites on a receiving neuron the sending neuron usually reabsorbs any excess neurotransmitter molecules in a process called re-uptake.


Drug Affects:





3. Cognition

Cognition: how people think

Figure ground: when shifting attention the background and foreground changes

Proximity: the proximity of objects changes how they are perceived, understood and described

Similarity: we group objects that are similar in some way and associate them as groups

Closure: when we see images that have gaps, from experience we can visually close the gaps and see them as a whole shape, word, symbol etc.



Selective attention:

Divided attention:


Meditative state:






Intelligence: a construct, a hypothetical concept that is created to explain a phenomenon that is believed to exist but cannot be directly observed or measured.


Galton 1822-1911- measured by simple tests

Spearman 1863-1945- two factor theory

Binet 1857-1911- normal children compared with children behind at school

Terman 1877-1911- general intelligence was inherited and determined success in life

Weschler 1896-1981- defined intelligence as: the aggregate or global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally and to deal effectively with one’s environment, first to start the concept of general intelligence

Gardner 1943- 7-9 types of intelligence (logical-mathematical (ability to analyse and solve problems and to think scientifically) Musical (ability to perform and compose music, to appreciate rhythm, tone and pitch))


EQ- emotional intelligence: the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions)


4. Relational Influences

Pro-social behaviour: voluntary intentional helping or kind behaviour that benefits others

-       Biological

-       Learned

-       Empathy

Anti-social behaviour: voluntary intentional behaviour designed to hurt or cause distress to another person physically or psychologically

-       Biological

-       Learned

-       Attributions of personality


Seterminants of liking:

-       Proximity

-       Similarity

-       Reciprocity


Changing structure of groups in adolescence

-       Dyads- pairs of close friends or lovers

-       Cliques- small groups who interact frequently

-       Crowds- larger groups of adolescents with similar identities or affiliations

Dunphy’s (1963) Stages of Adolescent groups

-       Young people formed cliques, usually of the same sex and are relatively small and isolated from other groups

-       Unisex cliques interact together and make a crowd and you are only allowed membership if you are already part of a clique

-       Changes in crowd with higher ranking clique members forming heterosexual cliques (dating)

-       Fully developed crowd composed of a number of couples in close association with one another

-       Couples begin to go their separate ways

These are the 5 steps of adolescent social groups


5. Communication

Effective communication: exists when the listener receives, interprets and understands the message as it was intended by the speaker.

Types of hearing loss:

-       Conductive

-       Sensorineural

-       Mixed


Robinson 2003


Correct definitions, with psychological theory discussed in relation to the topic

Correct definitions, but with some inaccuracy.

Generalisations, definitions using anecdotal evidence.

No definitions.

Non-verbal communication techniques

3 examples:

Body language


Physical distance

Facial expressions

Touch and Smell

States correct technique and explains the process (1)

Robinson’s social skills

Detailed description of one or more examples of relevant psychological research (summary of key research findings as well as details of study and researcher

Refers to one or more examples of psychological research but without detail (name of researcher and/or basic description of the study only

One or more personal or real life examples provided as evidence

No psychological evidence or incorrect evidence

Cultural aspect

Cultural aspect given for each example of social skill or non-verbal communication: answers can include:

Accept any 6 examples answers can vary.

Shaking hands: Muslim culture women can not shake hands with men/Japan bow


Forms of Address: French use Vous for formal and Tu for informal/ Australians more likely to move to first name basis quickly

Body languages - Some eastern cultures believe crossed legs is rude whereas western cultures do not

Gestures -pointing in western cultures usually expresses ‘over there or come here’ whereas some eastern cultures find pointing rude.

Physical distance -Western cultures usually have an arm length between each other, whereas Eastern cultures it is much shorter

Facial expressions - most cultures see smiles as happy whereas some cultures believe smiling is a sign of embarrassment.

Touch and smell - Western cultures use handshakes as a common greeting, whereas some eastern cultures men only handshake.


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